The Social Security Administration (SSA) may choose to have you examined by a doctor as part of your application process. This is likely if you haven’t been to a doctor in the last month to two months.
These exams are called Consultative Exams and are used to assess your physical condition. They are very similar to a basic checkup and are not designed to provide you with any medical treatment.
There are also mental consultative exams. These are usually given to get an accurate assessment of the level of mental impairment an individual suffers or, in some cases, to get verification of a particular mental condition.